Thursday, January 23, 2020
The Politics of Poe Edgar Allen Poe is known as the pioneer of the American short story, as well as a brilliant artist in poetry. His works are often tragic, or have a dark theme. Two often overlooked facets of Poe as a writer, however, are the political aspect of his works, and how far ahead he was of his time, with some material being applicable to present day situations, as exemplified by Sonnet to Science, The City in the Sea, and The Masque of the Red Death. The City in the Sea tells of a great city, with Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦shrines and palaces and towersÃ¢â¬ ¦ [which] Ã¢â¬ ¦resemble nothing that is oursÃ¢â¬ (6-8). This may be a representation of metropolises at the time, for instance Philadelphia or New York City, or more likely Baltimore, where he lived at the time the poem was originally published, 1831. The description given of the city, with Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the good and the bad and the worst and the bestÃ¢â¬ (4) and Ã¢â¬Å"Up domesÃ¯â ¾up spiresÃ¯â ¾up kingly hallsÃ¢â¬ (17) along with multiple descriptions of a dismal atmosphere and the sea, are reminiscent of present day Manhattan Island, or Seattle. A tale of doom warns of Ã¢â¬Å"Hell, rising from a thousand thrones/ Shall do it reverence.(52-53) for the city. This is how many people today feel about New York City, Los Angeles, and other megalopolises. This could be a warning to the nineteenth century cities. The proverbial calm before the storm is vividly, yet tragically depicted when Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦no ripples curl, alas!Ã¢â¬ (36), Ã¢â¬Å"No swellings tell of winds may be/[Ã¢â¬ ¦] on seas less hideously serene.Ã¢â¬ (38-40). Ã¢â¬Å"But lo, a stir is in the air!/ The waveÃ¯â ¾there is a movement there!Ã¢â¬ (42-43). The storm has hit! The repeated use of exclamation marks in an otherwise relatively Ã¢â¬Å"serenelyÃ¢â¬ punctuated poem gives an even more dramatic effect to the storm, strengthening the idea of peril. Though the Ã¢â¬Å"era of good feelingsÃ¢â¬ was still prevalent during the time when the poem was first written, the civil war was beginning to brew. A division was beginning to form over the issue of slavery. This calm before the storm, and the storm that hits, as well as the built up city depicted, sings a premonition of the civil war. The Sonnet-To Science not only tells of the dangers in PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s time, but could easily be applied today.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Kelly Johnson ENGL 3000-006 Remien March 5, 2010 Paper 1 The Confusion of Dreams You are falling faster and faster through the pale blue sky with no parachute and nothing to grab on to. The shards of rock below seem to get sharper and sharper as a wave of terror and hopelessness takes over. You are just moments away from certain death when all of the sudden you wake up and realize it was all a dream. In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream, he uses the power of dreams to construct the possibility of an alternate reality. A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream has many crude elements, which may have been offensive to many members of the audience, possibly causing the removal of his play. In order to combat this potential problem, Shakespeare adds PuckÃ¢â¬â¢s final speech to serve as an apology. Instead of using a simple apology though, Shakespeare attempts to convince the audience members they too were in a dream by linking the audience to the characters of the play, powerful discourse and imagery. All of these elements allow the reader or viewer to feel at ease instead of resentment as the play commences. The final speech of A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream at first seems out of place. As this play is a comedy, OberonÃ¢â¬â¢s final speech appears to be the perfect ending. However, the last words go to Puck, the fairy responsible for all of the mischief seen throughout the play, as he tries to fill the audience with a sense of peace by playing with the idea of dreams. In concurrence with the title, dreams are a dominant element throughout the play. Instead of the lovers questioning anything that previously happened, they just accept they all had the same dream, which allows them to happily continue with their lives as all peace was restored. This speech offers an extension of the possibility that it was all a dream to the audience. Puck calls on the audience to think, Ã¢â¬Å"That you have but slumbered here/ While these visions did appearÃ¢â¬ (5. 1. 417-418). Puck and the other fairies were able to mend all of the problems between the lovers and this speech should do just the same for the audience. If everything previously witnessed is only a dream, then there is no need for outrage and Ã¢â¬Å"all is mendedÃ¢â¬ (5. 1. 416). By creating a dream-like environment, the focus turns from the drama that unfolded throughout the play to the mystical and humorous occurrences. This enables the audience to feel sense of closure. In addition to relating the audience to the characters, the use of discourse aids to the dream-like sense. Throughout A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream, the way language is used plays an important role in the message Shakespeare is portraying and the final speech is no different, with the language used mirroring the language throughout the play. The final lines of the play extend upon the use of binary opposites. Throughout this speech, Puck offers conflicting ideas that cause further confusion for the audience, similar to the way dreams are viewed as perplexing upon waking up. Puck insists Ã¢â¬Å"And, as I am an honest Puck, If we have enearned luck Now to scape the serpentÃ¢â¬â¢s tongue, We will make amends ere long; Else the Puck a liar call. Ã¢â¬ (5. 1. 415-420) The contraction between Ã¢â¬Å"honestÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"liarÃ¢â¬ is blatant and it is impossible to be both. Additionally, while this is an apology as Puck attempts to gain the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s trust, this speech is filled with dangerous images, such as Ã¢â¬Å"serpentÃ¢â¬â¢s tongue;Ã¢â¬ adding a sense of doubt and unease. This confusion further adds to the dream-like sense Shakespeare is trying to create. In addition to the binary opposites that are used, this speech is spoken in such a way that it has a feeling of a lullaby. After suggesting the fact everything previously witnessed may have been a dream, Puck utters the lines Ã¢â¬Å"And this weak and idle theme, No more yielding but a dream, Gentles, do not reprehend, If you pardon, we will mend. Ã¢â¬ (5. 1. 419-422) While throughout the play, various other characters spoke lyrically, these lyrically spoken lines sound like something out of a lullaby, as if Puck wants the audience to once again fall asleep and dream as to possibly forget everything that had just transpired. Unlike the supernatural magic that was used on the characters throughout the play, Puck is attempting to use the magic of words to get the audience to do and think as he pleases. Using the words Ã¢â¬Å"weak and idle,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"yieldingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"GentlesÃ¢â¬ make the audience feel at peace and willing to do what Puck is asking of them. In addition to the form used, Shakespeare uses the images of shadows in this complex apology. The use of imagery throughout A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream, including the final speech, plays a powerful role in the underlying meaning of the play. In the first lines of his short monologue, Puck states Ã¢â¬Å"If we shadows have offended, Think but this, and all is mended- That you have but slumbered here While these visions did appear. Ã¢â¬ (5. 1. 415-418) Instead of referring to the actors as a people, he calls them Ã¢â¬Å"shadows. Ã¢â¬ The fairies, whose presence has often been mysterious and murky, throughout the play have directed the course of events that transpired. Therefore, it would make sense to the audience to want to follow what Puck is saying, as in the moment, it is the most natural thing to do. Similar to many of the other aspects of this speech, this proposes that what had just happened was simply the work of each personÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination. In this sense, Puck is therefore leaving it up to the audience to decide if what they have just witnessed is good or bad. The Ã¢â¬Å"shadowsÃ¢â¬ simply exist; it is up to the audience to give them meaning that relates to each of their lives, just as the characters in the play did. The final speech of A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream wants to make the audience feel as though they were dreaming, which is accomplished by linking the audience to the characters, discourse and imagery. PuckÃ¢â¬â¢s final monologue of A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream is more than just a simple apology. Even with the darker images and contradictions of the speech, it provides closure for the audience. Just as the characters in the play were able to think everything happened was simply a dream and continue to go about with their lives, Shakespeare is attempting to instill the same belief in the audience and hoping they enjoy the happy ending. Works Cited Shakespeare, William, and Russ McDonald. A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York, N. Y. : Penguin, 2000. Print.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Monday, December 30, 2019
Chemical Control Agents Used Against the Gypsy Moth The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a highly disruptive species that can, and has played a distinctive role in the lives of many organisms. Included in these organisms are various deciduous trees and shrubs, wildlife species that share the same environment, and even humans. The gypsy moth destroys the beauty of woodlands via defoliation, alters ecosystems and wildlife habitats, and disrupts our own lives. It should therefore come as no surprise that the U.S. Department of Agriculture and many other agencies have taken huge steps to help diminish populations of this small, yet persistent species. In an effort to control these overwhelming populations, five chemical control agents haveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is unknown whether or not these agents effect B.t.k. formulations or the effects they may have towards the workers. A variety of mammals have been tested for pathogenicity and other toxic effects of B.t.k. using several exposure routes. No evidence of pathogenicity was found in these experimental animals. However, viable B.t.k. has been recovered in humans up to several months after exposure. A few inconsistent studies were also reported in rats exposed to high B.t.k. levels. Symptoms included lethargy, frequent urination, hair loss and piloerection (hair stands up on end). The most likely routes of exposure of B.t.k. to the general public include skin, oral, and inhalation. A small amount of blood or eye exposure may occur in workers, but even then there is no guarantee of risk. B.t.k. seems to be an effective and widely used chemical agent for suppression of the gypsy moth. Nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) is a chemical agent containing gypsy moth parts causing viral disease of insect larvae. NPV is sprayed aerially over relatively large areas and poses minimal risk to both workers and the general public. There is, however, a lack of both human toxicity and exposure data so most of the risk assessment concerning NPV come only from experimental mammals. From this data, there has been no evidence of systemic or respiratory disease conditions. Under certain conditions, NPV may cause eye and skin irritations. But, only whenShow MoreRelatedBook Report on Silent Spring1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe earth. Carson clearly states Ã¢â¬Å"They should not be called Ã¢â¬ËinsecticidesÃ¢â¬â¢, but Ã¢â¬ËbiocidesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ as they are harmful for every life on this planet. According to her the chemicals are being used in the wrong way and by the wrong people. The third chapter of CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s book explains in details the elixirs of death that is, what these chemicals such as DDT and arsenic are and how they eventually gain the magical powers of causing death by spreading through the entire food chain of our ecosystem and givingRead MoreEssay on Silent Spring - Rachel Carson30092 Words Ã |Ã 121 PagesFurther Study, Compare Contrast, What Do I Read Next?, For Further Study, and Sources. Ã ©1998-2002; Ã ©2002 by Gale. Gale is an imprint of The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Gale and DesignÃ ® and Thomson Learning are trademarks used herein under license. The following sections, if they exist, are offprint from Beachams Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction: Social Concerns, Thematic Overview, Techniques, Literary Precedents, Key Questions, Related Titles, Adaptations
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Breast Cancer Research Paper We have been taught and are reminded frequently by public service announcements and by the medical community that when a woman discovers a lump on her breast she should go to the doctor immediately. Some women who have inflammatory breast cancer may remain undiagnosed for long periods, even while seeing their doctor to learn the cause of her symptoms. Ã¢â¬Å"Our mission is to achieve prevention and a cure for breast cancer in our lifetime by providing critical funding for innovative clinical and genetic research at leading medical centers worldwide, and increasing public awareness about good breast health.Ã¢â¬ This is a mission statement made from Evelyn H. Lauder. She is the founder of The Breast CancerÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The chance of women getting breast cancer has risen within the last couple decades. Between 1973 and 1989, the chance of getting breast cancer rose, on average, at 1.7% per year. In 1960, one out of twenty women had breast cancer. Sadly, it is now one out of nine. Even though the exact cause of cancer is unknown, there are many factors that increase your chance of getting the disease. These factors only account for only 30% of all cases of breast cancer. The other 70% are unknown. A family history of breast cancer may increase your risk of breast cancer. But just because someone in your family has breast cancer does not mean you will have it too. About 75% of patients with breast cancer do not have a family history of breast cancer early menstruation, late menopause - Menstruation before the age of 12 and menopause after the age of 50 can increase your risk of cancer. Women who are older have a higher risk than women who are younger. Also, women who have their first pregnancy after the age of 40 may get the disease. Food with less fat and more fiber are safer. Being obese may also increase your risk. Researchers in the New York State Department of Health have found that women on Long Island who grew up within a mile of a chemica l plant have a greater chance of getting breast cancer if they lived further away from the chemical plant. Even though white women are more likely to get cancer than African-American women, African-American women are more likelyShow MoreRelatedResearch Paper on Breast Cancer1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages According to the American Cancer Society, Each year, more than 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer; furthermore Twelve percent of all women will contract the disease, and 3.5% of them will die from breast cancer (American Cancer Society, 2005). There are risk factors that may lead to breast cancer. There are 4 stages of breast cancer and several treatments, although treatments vary from types and stages of breast cancer. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women who areRead MoreA Brief Note On Breast Cancer Research Paper863 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGabriela Rolon November 3, 2014 Biology 101 Section-13 Melissa Romero Breast Cancer Research Paper Proto-oncogenes can become mutated and become known as oncogenes, which are also known as cancer cells. The main purpose for proto-oncogenes is to divide the cell, prevent cell differentiation, and to stop cell death. When they are mutated they are called oncogenes, which increase cell division, cell differentiation is decreased instead of preventing it, and prevent cell death. The tumor suppressorRead MoreInvasive Lobular Carcinoma Cancer And The Effect It Can Have Upon Your Life1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslobular carcinoma breast cancer. My grandma and I are very close. Her diagnosis is what persuaded me to write my I- search paper on this specific breast cancer. One topic I am really focusing on when I write my paper is the genetic factors because its important to my family and I. Even though I began to research about the cancer when my grandma was diagnosed, there are still a lot of things I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about and IÃ¢â¬â¢m interested to learn about within creating this pap er. In this paper I will share withRead MoreEssay on Breast Cancer- Awareness in Females1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"What is breast cancer? How does it relate to women today? When is it appropriate to talk to a doctor?Ã¢â¬ These questions are all questions that women today ask each other, various health professionals, and doctors. As the most recognized form of cancer in the United States breast cancer affects so many women today. It is a disease that does not distinguish between race, religion and social status. In more recent cases, many young women are being diagnosed with aggressive forms of breast cancer. BreastRead MoreReviewing The Topic Of Breast Cancer987 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresearching the topic of Breast Cancer. In this introduction, it will include a problem about the topic and a valid solution in who to solve it. It also discusses the research and research methods put into this technical report, personal qualifications, work schedule, and lastly a table in whi ch lists a time schedule in which this report will be completed. Introduction Breast cancer has a significant amount of impact on the women, men, and families it effects.Breast cancer is only made of topic oneRead MoreBreast Cancer Patients Treated With Endocrine Therapy1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhen it is assumed that 40 % of breast cancer patients treated with endocrine therapy are resistant to this therapy it becomes a problem within the health world, because that such a larger number of patients are not being cured from this treatment. Researchers have studied the Cyclin D1 (CCND1) amplification for being the possible cause for tamoxifen resistance. Cyclin D1 is found within 10-20% of breast cancer patients making it a prime suspect too why patients are becoming resistant to treatmentRead MoreBreast Cancer : A Shocking And Very Serious Disease1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBreast cancer is a horrifying and very serious disease that should not be underestimated. It is a common cancer in women but the majority of women that are affected by this disease do not k now that it can be treated in all sorts of ways or that breast cancer rarely ever appears in the same form more than once. As one of the leading causes of death in the United States, breast cancer is affecting tons of people. Orenstein, a breast cancer survivor, discusses the awareness and education of breast cancerRead MoreBreast Cancer : Cancer And Cancer1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessymbol for breast cancer support and awareness. Breast cancer knows neither racial boundaries nor age restrictions. Females of all ages and ethnicities can develop breast cancer and it is the leading most common cancer among women. Calling attention to this often fatal disease is important by supporting its victims, families and friends of victims, as well as raising funds for breast cancer research. Though males are not immune from developing a breast cancer, for the purposes of this paper, thisRead More Breast Cancer: The Epidemic Essay1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmammograms? Breast cancer is an epi demic that plagues women, even though some men can get it. According to the American Cancer Society, Ã¢â¬Å"breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. The disease occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, tooÃ¢â¬ (Breast Cancer). Today many women are becoming diagnosed with breast cancer. ItRead MoreA Study On Breast Cancer843 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBreast Cancer Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women (Up to Date, 2014). The associated risk can be as high as 12% for every woman in the United States, regardless of family history (American Cancer Society, 2013). For this reason, care begins with patient education, risk stratification, and preventative medicine. The paper will review preventative options, risk stratification based on genetics and age, and breast cancer treatment
Friday, December 13, 2019
string(54) " holdings formed the glue between these six Keiretsu\." Abstract Capitalist and mostly single family centered, Zaibatsu led to a static system with weak competitive forces resulting in what is known as Ã¢â¬Ëcordial oligopolyÃ¢â¬â¢. (Niciejewska, 2007, pg 17) Keiretsu networks on the other hand, with its cross stockholdings is more dynamic and provided a more competitive business economy that continued to drive the Japanese economy during the post war period. The high cohesion that existed between the participating firms in the vertical keiretsu resulted in production and operational efficiency that gave Japanese manufacturers significant advantages in international markets. We will write a custom essay sample on International Business in Japan or any similar topic only for you Order Now The impact of information technology and the internet in particular enabled the western countries implement modular production strategies and improved value chain management with setting up of contracted production centers across the globe. The japans keiretsu firms struggled to fight the American companies that specialized in single core functions leading to what is known as the mega competition. Keiretsu networks are unsuitable under modern, globally competitive, and technologically advanced market conditions. There is definitely a shift towards a more western centric business organization. Introduction Japanese corporate governance has undergone a lot of change since the Meiji restoration in 1868. It was during this time that the industrial revolution flourished across the world. The Zaibatsu originated when the Meiji government sold out certain government undertakings to a select few private and influential families namely Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Yasuda and Sumitomo. These government controlled firms slowly developed into different industries that helped Japan grow economically strong. During this period Japan practiced a closed economic system and foreign technology was totally shunned except in areas concerning domestic development (Thorson Whitney, 2003). The Zaibatsu which could be loosely translated as monopolies emerged as the corporate structure that underlined the Japanese economy from this time till the end of the Second World War. In particular, the Zaibatsu or the industrial and financial conglomeration of the Japanese empire controlled a large percentage of the national economy during the first few decades of the twentieth century. In the aftermath of the World war 11 and the occupation of Japan by American forces, the Zaibatsu system was broken down and this gave rise to what is what is known as the Keiretsu system which is nothing but a group of companies with cross shareholdings and preferential business practices. Though the American government was bent on totally destroying the protectionary policies that the Zaibatsu system represented and proceeded with the dissolution of many Zaibatsu such as Asano, Furukawa, Nakajima, etc they stopped short of complete dissolution owing to fear of the intrusion of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s communist practices into Japan. The formation of Keiretsu was an attempt to democratize the Japanese economy and to eliminate the restrictive policies (Thorson Whitney, 2003). A brief overview of the firm structures in the Keiretsu and flourishing of Japanese economy between 1950-90, and its implications to the current Japanese e conomy would be discussed in this paper. Zaibatsu (Upto 1945) As briefly mentioned above, the Zaibatsu promoted a strong monopoly with holding companies at the top of the pyramid controlling all the operations between the various enterprises within the pyramid. Holding companies typically enjoyed the majority of the stocks of these businesses and more than 50% of the overall stocks of all the small companies that constitute the Zaibatsu were owned by its members (Thorson Whitney, 2003). Stock options were never sold out to any third parties not connected with the zaibatsu making it a totally closed economic structure. The Zaibatsu was in short, a government led economic drive with strategies as well as resources provided for by the government. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s industrial growth witnessed a rapid upswing under the Zaibatsu system. Buoyed by it success at home, the Japanese government forced the Zaibatsu system in Korea when it colonized the country (Shim Lee, 2008, pg 49). The Zaibatsu enjoyed complete domination with Mitsui, Sumitomo and Mitsubishi, enjoying as much as 28% of the assets in Japanese companies by 1929. Just when the World War II was about to finish the Zaibatsu had 22.9% of the Japanese company stocks. Thus a handful of Japanese families had control over a vast majority of the Japanese enterprises under the Zaibatsu system. The structure of the Zaibatsu changed very quickly and soon there was intense diversification. For instance the single Mitsubishi Corporation rapidly diversified its business in to mining, shipping, insurance, trading, etc in a very short period of time and soon transformed into a holding company that was at the top of the Pyramid controlling a range of individual yet affiliated businesses. The Iwasaki family owned and controlled the entire business network of Mitsubishi (Lincoln Shimotani, 2009). Keiretsu Keiretsu represents a cluster of enterprises that are linked to each other by way of cross shareholdings and preferential trading practices creating mutual interests in the business progress. Keiretsu are basically divided into two main typesÃ¢â¬â¢ namely Vertical keiretsu and horizontal keiretsu. However there are also other keiretsu such as the distribution keiretsu that relate to the distribution networks of big manufacturers. For instance the distribution networks of Matsushita, Fuji Photo Film, etc come under the distribution Keiretsu (Shimotani, 1995). Keiretsu emerged as a protective response to the dissolution and distribution of the largely family owned stocks of the Zaibatsu. When hostile companies were taking over the zaibatsu firms the three main Zaibatsu leaders convened and arranged a solution of cross shareholding and preferential trading policies that enabled them to retain the overall control of the enterprises among themselves. For instance the Mitsui, Sumitomo an d Mitsubishi zaibatsu formed this strategic pact of cross shareholdings to maintain their stronghold in the business. This is how the Keiretsu emerged from the Zaibatsu. Soon by the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s a few big financial institutions in Japan such as Dai-Ichi Kangyo, Fuji and Sanwa joined with the Mitsubishi, Sumitomo and Mitsui to constitute what was popularly known as the six horizontal Keiretsu (Lincoln Shimotani, 2009). Periodic meetings between the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s council (shacho-kai) members and executive exchanges and cross share holdings formed the glue between these six Keiretsu. You read "International Business in Japan" in category "Essay examples" The horizontal Keiretsu is centered around a large bank. On the other hand, the vertical Keiretsu are the large manufacturing companies and supply chain companies, the distributors etc. Unlike the Horizontal Keiretsu there is no presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s council in the vertical Keiretsu but the groups of suppliers of a manufacturing firm represent that role (Miwa and Ramsayer, 2006). Similar to the horizontal Keiretsu, the firms in the vertical keiretsu are also linked together by share holdings across firms and preferential business policies. In vertical Keiretsu there is improved knowledge sharing by way of business transfers including exchange of experts and technical staff members across the vertical network. Overall, vertical Keiretsu promotes improved cohesion among the network firms. In fact, the increased dependence of main firms on the supplier firms in the vertical Keiretsu even lead to large scale investments by these ancillary Japanese firms in US following the footsteps of the Japanese automobile manufacturing firms setting up their FDI in that Country (Banerji Sambharya ,1996). In technology intensive industries of Japan vertical Keiretsu has greatly improved their international competitiveness by facilitating rapid knowledge sharing across the partnership firms. Empirical studies that measured the effects of such knowledge sharing across the firms in the vertical Keiretsu clearly suggest positive productive gains (Branstetter, 2000). One of the important advantages of the vertical keiretsu is the improved coordination between the suppliers and the assemblers. In the keiretsu automotive industries the suppliers receive plenty of support in products manufacturing , processing and people management. This is distinctly different from the US approach where the suppliers and the assembly line operate entirely independently. This model of operation facilitates both the parties as it helps to reduce the overall risk for either party. (Lincoln Shimotani, 2009) Thus the Keiretsu improved knowledge transfer among the networked firms, improved productivity, reduced risk for the firms and gave the Japanese companies clear advantage in the international market. Furthermore, Gerlach (2004), also notes that the Keiretsus were particularly important due to their one-set principle and networking. For instance, synergies were achieved in input and output, especially in the case of manufacturing. Centralized systems and departments were used in conducting basic support operations, which helped all subsidiaries in cost savings (Lincoln Shimotani, 2009). Also, profit-trapping mechanisms were used in place, by distributing them effectively through subsidiaries (Lincoln Shimotani, 2009). Cross shareholdings were also particularly important as it helped avoid takeovers, encouraged risk taking amongst companies, and had a long term outlook on strategy (Sturgeon, 2006). One of the important examples of the vertical Keiretsu is the Toyota group. In fact, Toyota has a unique distinction of being both a horizontal keiretsu as well as a vertical keiretsu. They key difference is that the massive size of the Toyota organization makes it possible to exist wi thout being controlled by a central bank as is the case with horizontal keiretsu. Toyota with more than $72 billion in annual revenue has the financial might to stand for itself without the dependence of any major funding source. However, it is associated with the Mitsui group horizontally. Toyota is also widely diversified like a horizontal keiretsu company with its firms representing industries as varied as real estate, computer development, aircraft development, nonlife insurance, etc. The disintegration of the Keiretsu (Why keiretsu failed?) The keiretsu system started to decline slowly by the early nineties and one study by Gerlach (2004) that analyzed the cluster networking pattern of 257 Japanese organizations between 1978 and 1998 found clear evidence indicating this shift away from the Keiretsu. Analysis of cross shareholdings further confirmed the decline of the keiretsu structure (Lincoln Shimotani, 2009). By the late nineties many major banks that were previously the core of the Horizontal keiretsu had already sold off major portions of their shares to international financial institutions (Ahmadjian and Robinson, 2001). Several Bank mergers further shook the keiretsu structure. Starting with the Mitsui and Taiyo-Kobe Bank merger in 1990 to the 1998 merger of Industrial Bank of Japan, Fuji and Dai-ichi Kangyo bank the largescale mergers of Japanese financial institutions led to consolidation of the related keiretsu firms (Lincoln Shimotani, 2009). Globalization and technological changes further led to the withering of the Keiretsu. The numbers of board of directors were reduced and many foreign personals took up the position. International investors further demanded the selling off of the stocks in supplier firms and other affiliate firms. Furthermore, the global shift towards modular production system and the production efficiency that it gave rise to, along with a degree of independence between the firms that are involved, kind of eroded the production line advantages that Japanese firms specialized in mass production under the keiretsu system had enjoyed for a long period. The growth of information technology and the adaptation of computer simulation technologies in production testing and experimentation and swift data exchange between the firms reduced the need for physical communication (which was key in Keiretsu) and drastically improved value chain management.(Sturgeon, 2006) Modular production is propelled by ease of systems integration facilitated by information technology. By the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s modular production system was already in place in the US electronic industry with its contract manufacturers spread across the globe. While the American firms capitalized on the internet enabled modular production systems and dominated the electronics industry and related computer hardware industry, Japanese electronics industry was still sticking to the Ã¢â¬Ëcomponents plus productsÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy. Cisco systems for instance enjoyed total domination in the network routers market enjoying as much as 80% of the market share while simply outsourcing its device production to contracted producers such as Solectron and Flextronics. Often the production centers are located in low cost regions such as China giving a distinct advantage for the modular production strategy. This contrast between the modular production strategies of the American firms and the in house Ã ¢â¬Ëintegrated production systemÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Japanese keiretsu firms gave a clear advantage to the American firms. In other words, the Japanese keiretsu firms could not handle the Ã¢â¬Ëmega competitionÃ¢â¬â¢ from the American firms which specialize in single core functions or narrow core competencies. The following figure 1 illustrates the loss suffered by the Japanese keiretsu electronic industries in the early years of the new millennium. (Sturgeon, 2006) Another factor that accompanied global trade is the fluctuation of the exchange rates and its influence on the profit margin. Furthermore, the expansion into international markets and the associated transportation costs motivated many of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s manufacturing firms to move their production facilities abroad as a cost effective solution. Though some suppliers too moved and invested in these new countries, in most cases the central firms such as Toyota started building trust and relationships with the local suppliers. Furthermore, changes in Japanese economic reforms including the Tax policies did not tolerate risk sharing measures as they used to before which clearly undermined one of the key Keiretsu principles. Conclusion The Large capitalist and mostly single family based zaibatsu companies flourished during the early twentieth century creating industrial monopolies that were closely controlled by the government. Zaibatsu led to what is known as a static system as most of the stocks are retained by the family that controls the business. Furthermore Zaibatsu promoted weak competition leading to what is known as Ã¢â¬Ëcordial oligopolyÃ¢â¬â¢.) Keiretsu on the other hand with its cross stockholdings is more dynamic and provided a more competitive business economy that continued to drive the Japanese economy during the post war period. The high cohesion that existed between the participating firms in the vertical keiretsu resulted in production and operational efficiency that gave Japanese manufacturers significant advantages in international markets. However, the Keiretsu principles of Ã¢â¬Ëpreferential businessÃ¢â¬â¢ affected foreign companies from entering the Japanese markets. Globalization and increasing pressures from international organizations to sell off stocks in affiliated firms affected the cohesion that previously existed between the participating firms in the keiretsu network. Furthermore, the successful integration and mass production strategies of the keiretsu networks that helped Japanese manufacturing firms flourish were soon affected by the shift in global production strategies. Particularly, the concept of modular production where product design could be isolated from its manufacture and the shift towards outsourcing in the western world created a dent in the Japanese manufacturing sector which was still stuck with the Ã¢â¬Ëin house productionÃ¢â¬â¢ policies. The impact of information technology and the internet in particular enabled the western countries implement modular production strategies and improved value chain management with setting up of contracted production centers across the globe. The japans keiretsu firms struggled to fi ght the American companies that specialized in single core functions leading to what is known as the mega competition. These fundamental shifts in organizational structure and strategies in the West have made the Keiretsu networks unsuitable under modern globally competitive and technologically advanced market conditions. There is definitely a shift towards a more western centric business organization. Bibliography Ahmadjian, Christina L and Patricia Robinson. (2001). Safety in Numbers: Downsizing and the New Political Economy of Structural Adjustment and Globalization, New York: M.E. Sharpe. Jae Seung Shim Moosung lee, (2008), The Korean Economic System, Ashgate Publishing Ltd. England. James R Lincoln Mashiro Shimotani, (2009), Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper series, [online] University of California, viewed Mar 9th 2012, Katharina Niciejewska, (2007) The Influence of Social networks in Japanese business. Keiretsu as a Japanese Network. Auflage , Germany. Kunal Banerji PhD Rakesh B Sambharya, (1996), Vertical Keiretsu and international market entry: The case of the Japanese automobile ancillary industry, Journal of international business studies. Vol 27, No 1. Lee Branstetter (2000), Vertical Keiretsu and Knowledge Spillovers in Japanese Manufacturing: An Empirical assessment, Journal of Japanese and International Economies , Vol 14, Issue 2, pg 73-104 Miwa, Yoshiro and J. Mark Ramsayer. 2006. The Fable of the Keiretsu: Urban Legends of the Japanese Economy. University of Chicago Press, 2006. Thayer Watkins, The Toyoto Group: The One and Only Horizontal and Vertical Keiretsu, [Online] San Jose State University, viewed Mar 9th 2012, Timothy J Sturgeon, (2006), Modular Productions Impact on JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s Electronic industry, MIT, IPC Working papers series. Viewed Mar 10th 2012, How to cite International Business in Japan, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Marketing Strategy and Plan for NKK Corporation. Answer: Introduction NKK Corporation is second largest steelmakers in Japan and considered as one of the largest steelmaker of the world. It also has it operations in engineering, urban development, and electronics sections. The engineering sections is comprises of power plants, pipelines, water supple, sewage treatment system, ships, offshore structure, etc. the urban division manufactures office buildings, parks, golf course, etc. the electronics sections manufactures software, circuits, automation designs systems etc. in 1911, NKK produced Japans first seamless steel pipe. Issues faced by NKK in 1999 There are many reasons due to which the company faced problems in 1999. It was said that the orders for steel products was the lowest in the year of 1999. It was the worst year in the history of NKK. There are mainly three reasons founded by the Researchers, due to which company had faced crises. Firstly, the company was (Lorette, 2016 unable to manage the staff of 15,000 in numbers. Secondly, the engineering section was unable to solve any problems as it was also suffering from a downturn that is approximately 7%. Thirdly, there was a downturn in the overall economy of the Japan. NKKs has only 30% investment in overseas market which results in loss due to the Japans economic crises of 1999. Kawasaki Steel In my opinion, the company should merge with Kawasaki Steel to resolve its issues. It was an independent company. This company had achieved a remarkable position in construction of waterfront area that proved that company has good management (Head, 2014). The company has expanded its exports by 1 million tons and announced that there must be increase in the crude steel production. This company does not follow the strategy of competitors. The company has a Product sector system to control he profits of each product. Reasons due to which NKK should merge with Kawasaki Steel Kawasaki Steel had an advantage in automotive steel sheets and enhanced this by investing 260 billion yen more to upgrade the facilities. The company had a net sale of 1.09 trillion yen and 3.1 billion yet net profit. The ratio was also good i.e., 68%. These all qualities of Kawasaki Steel helped NKK to cope up in fiscal year of 1999. The potential issues that can arise if NKK were to merge with Kawasaki Steel: Many times, companies that merged headquartered in different countries. It results in complications as the managers are unable to tranfer their services to the organization. Language is also a barrier but in this case, both the companies belong to same country. Cultural diffentiation is also a major barrier faced by companies. It is important to study the culture of the company before merger. Many times, the leaders and heads of the company are not aware much about merger. In such case, they have to hire qualified consultant to handle the merger. Time is also a big issue in mergers. Moreover, the leaders do not have time to devote for merger activities. Mergers also affect the ongoing business. Leaders have to face this challenge at the time of mergers. Trainings and coaching should be provided to the employees after merger so that they can perform the work effectively. Communication barriers Retention of employees Conclusion Under this study, we can understand the importance of marketing strategy for any organization. It helps to maintain an effective and efficient growth of the company and its production. It provides aspects to make marketing plan so that there will coordination among all the activities. Marketing strategy helps to maximize the profits also. In 1999, NKK was facing fiscal crises and the whole economy of Japan was facing the same. At that time, there was a need to analyze the market and to make appropriate marketing strategy to cope up with such issues. Referencing Head, G. (2014), 5 Keys to a Great Small Business Marketing Strategy, [Online], Accessed on: 15 September 2016, Available at: https://smallbiztrends.com/2014/09/5-keys-great-small-business-marketing-strategy.html. Lorette, K. (2016), What Is Marketing Strategy Planning?, [Online], Accessed on: 13 September, 2016, Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/marketing-strategy-planning-628.html.