Sunday, September 22, 2019
Piracy Ruining the Music Industry Essay For many people, music is a large part of their lives. They listen to it to as often as they can. In their cars, while they work out, study, and many other daily activities. But does anyone think about how important music is to those who work in the music industry? Some people buy CDÃ¢â¬â¢s, others may buy digital copies online (often referred to as mp3Ã¢â¬â¢s). However, there are others who download free copies of music from file sharing websites, such as FrostWire and Napster. This is a crime, and many people are not aware of it. There needs to more stringent measure to protect the music industry from these acts of piracy and copyright infringements. Piracy has affected the music industry drastically over the years. It would appear all is well for those in the recording industry. However, the music industry is worth more than half of what it was in 1999 and the decline doesnt look as if it will improve. The RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) reported that in 1999, the revenue for music sales topped $14.6 billion. Over time, total revenue from U.S. music sales and licensing plunged to $6.3 billion in 2009 (Alexandra. Ã¢â¬Å"The History of Recording Industry Sales, 1973-2010Ã¢â¬ ). File sharing is the reason for the decline in album sales over the years. Because it is so easy to get free music, people do not find a need to purchase it. In 1984, the Supreme Court, ruled in the Universal City Studios vs. Sony Corporation case, that home recording of copyrighted materials, would be legal under the fair use provision (Stevens, Law of Cornell.). The decision was made so that it would be legal for home users to make copies of copyrighted material without obtaining any permission of the copyright holder to do so. This ruling covered music, television shows, and movies. Many people argued that they wanted to be able to use the recording devices that they purchased. There needs to be new laws to reflect the change in technology since that time. In 1984 we did not have the different file sharing sites that gave people the opportunity to upload their recordings. Piracy is very popular in many countries. This is because many cultures are interested in the American lifestyle. It is very hard for other cultures to obtain American media, so they rely on file-sharing websites to stay connected. This has affected the American economy drastically. There has been a loss of around 71,060 jobs, a decrease of worker earnings of 2.7 billion dollars and a loss of U.S tax revenue of 422 million dollars. It is estimated that the cost of piracy in the global economy in 2012 was 35.4 billion dollars, and 12.5 billion dollars affecting the music industry individually. (Goldman,Ã¢â¬ Musics lost decade: Sales cut in halfÃ¢â¬ ) The U.S. government has attempted to prevent piracy by bringing lawsuits against companies such as, LimeWire, Mega Upload, and Pirate Bay. Sites such as these may be stopped, but within months another company begins a similar or more-improved service. Ã¢â¬Å"Would you go into a CD store and steal a CD?Ã¢â¬ questioned an angry Britney Spears in an industry-funded advert. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the same thing, people going into the computers and logginÃ¢â¬â¢ on and stealing our music.Ã¢â¬ Piracy is ruining the entertainment industry. The music industry has a diminished profitability, and significant job loss has occurred, and will only get worse, unless there are more stringent measures to regulate the internet and itsÃ¢â¬â¢ file-sharing sites.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The No Load Circuit And Short Circuit Characteristics Biology Essay The Ward-Leonard system is a conventional speed control method. It consists of a 3 phase induction machine controlling a separately excited DC generator. The DC generator in turn supplies a variable DC voltage to a DC motor. It is basically a DC variable speed drive . The Ward-Leonard system is shown below in Figure 1. Figure : Ward-Leonard system setup The principle behind the Ward-Leonard system is that the DC generator can actually influence the motor to develop a torque and speed required by the load . Thus the speed of the generator is directly proportional to the armature voltage applied to the DC motor . The output voltage of the DC generator is controlled by adjusting the exciting voltage (field voltage), this then controls the speed of the DC motor . Applications Travelling cranes Lifts Mine hoists Boring machines Table : Ward-Leonard system advantages and disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Very wide range of speeds High cost Provides step less speed control Low over-all efficiency Experiment Apparatus 2- coupled induction machine and dc motor (as shown below in Figure 2) 4- digital multimeters (DMM) 2- Variac (Excitation field) Tachometer Figure : Coupled induction machine and dc machine Objectives of the experiment Characterise the DC machines and determine the equivalent circuits. Derive the power flow equations between the DC machines in terms of the equivalent circuits. Control the power flow between the DC machines by adjusting the field currents. Then compare the measured results with the expected theoretical power flow. Experiment procedure and setup No-load Test This test was used to determine the armature voltage. Before the experiment began the armature and field resistance were both measured. The Variac (exciter) was then connected to the field port on the DC machine. The Digital multimeter was connected to the armature port on the DC machine in order to measure the armature voltage. The DC machine was coupled to a three phase induction machine which was first turned on to run the DC machine. The setup is shown below in Figure 3. Using the knob on the Variac, increase the field voltage with an increment of 10V ( also increases) and for each case determine the armature voltage. This was done from 0V to the rated field voltage 110V. Now decrease the field voltage to demagnetise the DC machine from 110V to 0V also with an increment of 10V. Note the residual magnetism. Figure : No-Load test setup Short-Circuit Test This test was used to determine the armature current. The same procedure for the No-Load test was followed but in this case the digital multimeter was connected in series in the armature port in order to measure the current. Using the knob on the Variac, increase the field voltage with an increment of 10V and for each case determine the armature current. This was done from 0V to the rated field voltage 110V. The DC machine was demagnetised from 110V to 0V also with an increment of 10V recording the armature current. Ward Leonard experiment This setup was used to determine the power flow between the machines. The two coupled machines were connected together as shown below in Figure 4. A coupled machine is shown in Figure 1. The coupled machines were connected together through the armature. The positive terminals of the armature were connected together and the negative terminals were connected together. A digital multimeter was connected in between the positive terminals of the armature in order to measure the current. Each DC machine was connected to Variac through the field port. Both the Variac machines were turned down to 0V. The two induction machines were switched on both at the same time from the 3 power supply. The Variac knobs were both turned at the same time with an increment of 10V from 0V. This is done up until the multimeter reads 0A. The 0A was obtained at a field voltage of 110V. At this stage the second machine was left constant and the field voltage of the first machine was turned down at an increment of 10V, whilst recording the current and the speed of the machine without exceed the speed of 1502 rpm. A tachometer was used to measure the speed. After that the first machine was calibrated back to 110V, were the multimeter reads 0A. Now the first machine was left constant and the field voltage of the second machine was turned down at an increment of 10V, whilst recording the current and the speed of the machine without exceed the speed of 1502 rpm. A tachometer was used to measure the speed. After this then the practical is complete, the next step is to deduce an equation for the power as a function of excitation (field current) based on the machine characteristics. Then plot the graphs. Figure : Power flow setupC:UsersMashDesktopf.bmp Safety Do not exceed the ratings of the machines and all the other equipment. Switch off the equipment after completing the practical. Results Characterisation of DC machine Table : Armature and field resistance Resistance Before After 7.3 Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¦ 9.8 Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¦ 573 Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¦ 542 Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¦ No-load characteristics G:Machine Pracopennn.bmp Figure : No-load circuit Table : No-load test results Magnetizing Demagnetizing Field volts (V) Armature volts (V) Field volts (V) Armature volts (V) 0 0 1.6 9 10 27.8 10 35 20.8 61.1 20.5 68 30 88.9 30.1 97 40 116.8 38.2 119 50.1 141.1 50.1 148 60.6 165.1 60.1 170 70 181.9 69.5 185 80 196.2 80.4 200 90 209 90.5 211 100.2 218 100.9 220 110.3 227 110.3 227 Figure : No load test results plot The following table shows the calculated field current using the measured field resistance of 573 Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¦. Table : Amperes in the field coils Magnetizing Demagnetizing Field volts (V) Field Amperes (A) Field volts (V) Field Amperes (A) 0 0.0000 1.6 0.0028 10 0.0175 10 0.0175 20.8 0.0363 20.5 0.0358 30 0.0524 30.1 0.0525 40 0.0698 38.2 0.0667 50.1 0.0874 50.1 0.0874 60.6 0.1058 60.1 0.1049 70 0.1222 69.5 0.1213 80 0.1396 80.4 0.1403 90 0.1571 90.5 0.1579 100.2 0.1749 100.9 0.1761 110.3 0.1925 110.3 0.1925 Figure : DC generator no-load characteristics Comments The graph shows the relationship between the no-load armature voltage and the field current at a constant speed of 1496 rpm. The magnetization curve is a straight line up to a field current of 0.1A, after this point the graph approaches a condition known as saturation, thus any increase in the field current does not result in an increase in the armature voltage. Consequently the demagnetizing plot is above the magnetizing plot, this is due to the residual magnetism and hence the curve begins just above the 0 mark (a little way up). Closed circuit test G:Machine Pracshortt.bmp Figure : Closed circuit diagram Table : Closed circuit results Magnetizing Demagnetizing Field volts (V) Armature current (A) Field volts (V) Armature current (A) 1.7 2.54 1.6 0.21 10.8 3.63 10.7 1.1 20.5 4.52 18.8 1.81 30.8 4.72 29.5 2.64 40 5.54 39.9 3.37 50.9 6.4 50.2 3.93 60.7 5.59 60.8 4.44 70 6.01 70.7 5.05 80 6.1 80.8 5.5 90 6.52 90 5.9 100 6.92 100 6.54 111 7.4 111 7.4 Figure : Short-circuit characteristics Nameplate Information No-load circuit calculations Figure : No-load Fitted-curve This can be written as Using Figure 10 we can use the fitted plot of the no-load saturation curve above to determine the constant. The measured speed is used. From Thus we can calculate: But in practice we can approximate the value of the torque constant Short-circuit calculations Figure : Short circuit fitted plot This can be written as As calculated above Thus by substitution Thus now we can determine the armature resistance Coupled machines (Ward-Leonard system) ) 110.1 110 0.1 1492 1491 0.205224 0.15597 110.1 100 0.15 1492 1492 0.186567 0.212687 110.1 90 0.49 1490 1494 0.16791 0.625299 110 79.9 0.86 1486 1499 0.149067 0.974303 110.1 70 1.22 1490 1498 0.130597 1.210896 110 60 1.59 1480 1499 0.11194 1.352687 110.1 50 2.03 1484 1501 0.093284 1.439179 110.1 40.3 2.45 1484 1503 0.075187 1.399974 Power flow ) 110 110 0.1 1492 1492 0.205224 0.15597 100 110 -0.83 1492 1496 0.186567 -1.17687 90 110 -1.17 1480 1500 0.16791 -1.49306 80 110 -1.56 1470 1500 0.149254 -1.76955 70 110 -2.05 1474 1500 0.130597 -2.0347 60.1 110 -2.25 1483 1502 0.112127 -1.91737 Derivation of power equation Figure : Ward-Leonard system setup Figure : Ward-Leonard system equivalent circuit Now from Figure above we expect that Where (For the generator) (For the motor) (For the generator) (For the motor) Equate equation (1) and (2) Rewrite the equation Now we observe that Let This equation remains the same, it just depends which machine is a generator and which machine is a motor. As mentioned above to determine which machine acts as a generator or motor, we look at the following sign conversion. Conclusion DC machine Characterisation The DC machine characterisation of the generator was successfully done, both the no-load test and the short circuit test were done and all the parameters were calculated. The parameter calculated include the armature resistance which was found to be 6.25 Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¦ as compared to the measured and the rated armature resistance it is within range ( difference). The characterisation also helps us understand how the dc works; by using the saturation curves we can determine the point where the machine starts saturation and determine the critical resistance. We can also determine information about the machine which would normally be given in the nameplate. Ward-Leonard system and the power flow The power flow equation was successfully derived and found as the equation below The equation was derived from the Ward-Leonard system that was setup in the practical. The practical showed that the power can be controlled between two DC machines using this setup. In the practical the power flowed from the generator to the motor, this was seen through the current having a negative current flowing in one direction and a positive current flowing to the other direction. The practical was successful and it clearly corresponds to the theory. What I leaned The practical was useful in terms of helping us understand the concept of residual magnetism which is the same as in the theory. The practical was also a good representation in terms of how an elevator/lift works.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Study of Rail Structure: Risk Analysis and Failure Mode Study of Rail Structure:Ã Risk Analysis and Failure Mode Avoidance In this case study, a brief overview of railway structure is discussed. Defects related to rail failure are considered essential to frame out the correct maintenance strategy. As it is closely associated with safety of passenger and cargo transportation, hence it retains high risk in terms of human lives and cost of resources. There will always be some risk associated with collisions and derailments but it can be reduced by eradication of the root causes. Exposure and amendment of rail defects are major issues for all rail companies around the world. There are challenges to the infrastructure maintenance individuals to perform effective inspection and cost effective rectification decisions. If addressed properly these can reduce potential risk of rail breaks and derailments. Risk assessment and Failure mode avoidance has become a vital constraint for the organisations to decide a cost effective and improved solution that could meet the financial constraints regarding inspection, renewal and replacement of rails and wheels. This study aims to reduce costs and risks related to rail operation by effective approaches. The issues and challenges related to rail maintenance are outlined. The maintenance strategy followed by most railway companies is also defined. Large Railways infrastructures are the prime manner of transportation in several countries. Improved and better safety measurements are continuously presented but still could not be considered as incidents proof. There will always be some risk related with derailments and other occurrences such as major disruption to services, which can furthered be minimised by detailed examination of the root causes. Some of the causes require improvement in skill and efficiency, for example human error, and some may be improved by optimization of inspection regularity. Therefore, a appropriate thorough study of the defects which develop both on the rolling stock and rail infrastructure is vital to frame out the correct maintenance approach. European Union spends around Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ 2 billion every year for maintenance and repairing of broken rails (European Commission Cordis, 2017). It is understood that the consequential cost due to derailment decreases with rise in inspection, lubrication an d grinding charges. Risk in railways could be expressed in terms of cost, loss of human lives, infrastructure unavailability, traffic delay and environmental impact which may be caused due to derailment of a train carrying hazardous material. In this report, different kinds of rail defects and maintenance procedures followed areÃ described. Different risk assessment and failure mode avoidance methods and tools have been discussed briefly in this report. Some of the issues and challenges related to railÃ maintenance are also addressed with an aim to reduce the total cost and risks associated with rail operations. Rails are longitudinal steel members that accommodate wheel loads and distribute these loads over the sleepers or supports, guiding the train wheels evenly and continuously. It is one of the most important components of the track structure. Usually a flat bottom railÃ is used in conventional railway track, which can be separated into 3 parts: rail head, rail webÃ and rail foot. Many standards are used for rail profiles. (Kumar, 2007) Figure 1 shows the 2 common rail profiles. Figure 1: Flat bottom and Bullhead rail profiles The rails must possess sufficient stiffness so that they can act as beams and transfer the concentrated wheel loads to the spaced sleeper supports without excessive deflection between supports. (Ernest and John, 1994) Due to economic pressure, there is a world-wide trend to increase axle loads, traffic densityÃ and speed to reduce the operating cost and increase the efficiency of railways. Axle loadsÃ around the world have increased in general from 22.5 to 32.5 Tonnes in last ten years (Allen, 1999). This has led to increased rate of defect formation in rails. Some of the common defects are described in the following sections. 4.1. Shelling Shelling is a defect caused by loss of material initiated by subsurface fatigue. Shelling normally takes place at the gauge corner of high rails in curves. An elliptical shell like crack propagates in the subsurface parallel to the rail surface. When these cracks emerge on the surface, they cause the metal to come out from the crack area. It is generally eliminated by grinding. (Kumar, 2007) Figure 2: Shelling caused by Head Checks 4.2. Head Checks In the crown area, the contact stresses are generally low as it has greater profile radius inÃ comparison to the gauge side of rail. However, high contact stresses are produced on the high rails gauge corner, which usually has curve radius from 1000 to 1500 m. HeadÃ checks are known to occur in tighter ((IHHA, 2001). If head checks are not controlled, they can cause a rail break. Grinding is the most common practice to remove head checks. Severe head checks need rail section replacement. 4.3. Squats Unlike shelling, squats appear in crown area of straight rail sections. They are surfaceÃ initiated defects formed by RCF. A squat is formed by two cracks, a leading crack and aÃ trailing crack. Both these cracks propagate in opposite direction. These defects could be prevented by grinding. (Kumar, 2007) 4.4. Spalling Spalling occurs, when the surface initiated crack development path is intersected by other similar shallow cracks on the rail head area, a shallow chip of rail material falls out. Spalling is more common in cold climates as rail stiffness increases. Figure 3: Gauge Corner Spalling in rails 4.5. Tache Ovale Tache Ovale is a subsurface defect formed around 10-15 mm below the rail head surface (see Figure 4). This is caused by hydrogen accumulation during manufacturing of rail or when poor welding is done in rails. Thermal and residual stresses also contribute to form this defect. Figure 4: Tache Ovale 4.6. Plastic Flow and Tongue Lipping Plastic flow occurs in rail head area, the depth of which may be up to 15 mm. Plastic flowÃ occurs on the field side of the low rail due to overloading. Tongue lipping is also a form of plastic deformation, but it is initiated by surface cracks. These cracks partially separate a layer of material from the bulk of rail. (IHHA, 2001) 4.7. Bolt Hole Crack Bolt holes appear in the rail web often starting from the fastening point of fishplates. ButÃ these become weak points to resist crack initiation. These cracks have a very high potential to cause rail break and needs urgent replacement. 4.8. Longitudinal Vertical Crack This is a manufacturing defect, which usually appears in the rail web and may extend in railÃ head also. If this crack is intersected by some other crack, it may lead to an early railÃ fracture. Odds of sudden fracture due to this become predominant in cold climate. Figure 5: Longitudinal vertical crack 4.9. Transverse Crack Transverse crack is mostly developed in the cross-sectional area of defective weld joints. AÃ welding defect may be due to variation in weld material or rail manufacturing defect. Figure 6 shows a Transverse crack develops from the centre of the rail head or the rail foot. Use of clean steel and deeper hardening of rail head may avoid its formation. (Kumar, 2007) Figure 6: Transverse crack 4.10. Buckling Lateral buckling in rails is a very common defect in which the rail bulges out on its either sideÃ due to expansion. As the temperature rises, longitudinal expansion in rail takes place. 4.11. Corrugation Corrugation is a rail flaw consisting of the wave-like wearing of the rail tread visualized asÃ peaks and valleys, in other words, it is a periodic irregularity of the rail surface (IHHA, 2001),Ã see Figure 7. Figure 7: Corrugation in rails Rail corrugations are the result of a damage mechanism, such as wear etc. Rail corrugations do not pose risk of immediate derailment, but they may be responsible for loosening of rail fastenings, ballast deterioration, increase in noise and vibration level leading to passenger discomfort, etc. Two main types of corrugations which generally occur in rails are: Short pitch corrugations Long pitch corrugation Tables below show the percentage and type of defect detection by different rail infrastructureÃ companies. Railway First Second Third Fourth Rail track (1999/2000) Squats 21.7% Vertical/transverse 20.1% Horizontal/longitudinal 12.5% Bolt holes 9.6% SNCF (1999) Squats 23.4% Internal fatigue 11.5% Shells 8.4% Thermite welds 4.7% HSPC (1999) Thermite welds 31.5% Wheel burns 17.2% Horizontal split webs 13.3% Bolt holes 11.3% NS (1997) Insulated Joints 59.4% Transverse defects 18% Thermite welds 15% Fatigue Failure 5.2% DB (1996) Thermite welds 29% Sudden fracture 18% Fatigue Failure 16% Electric bonds 4.0 % Banverket (1998) Transverse fracture 55.1% Welded joint 32.7% Horizontal defect 6.1% Vertical split 2.0% HH1 (1999) Vertical split heads 34.7% Thermite welds 20.3% Detail fractures 13.1% Bolt holes 12.2% HH2 (1999) Transverse defects 23.6% Thermite welds 15.5% Wheel burns 13.2% Shells 9.6% Table 1: Causes of defective rails (Source: Kumar, 2007) Rail breaks and derailments can cost the rail players in terms of loss of revenue, property, environmental damage or even loss of life. Estimation of these costs and analysis of risks are important in deciding effective maintenance strategies. In simple terms, risk can be defined as the chance or probability of loss, damage or injury. (Reddy, 2004) 5.1. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) FMEA is a step-by-step procedure for systematic evaluation of the severity of potential failure modes in a system. This process was originally developed in the 1960s, to analyse the safety of aircrafts, but has been since applied to several other fields, including nuclear power plants and the military. (Villemeur, 1992-A) Figure 8: Schematic representation of the FMEA. (Source: Villemeur, 1992-A). 5.2. Risk Priority Number (RPN) Risk priority number (RPN) is a methodology for analysing the risk associated with potentialÃ problems identified during (FMEA) (for details refer Reliasoft, 2005). Assigning RPN requires the analysis team to rate each potential problem per three rating scales: Severity Occurrence Detection After the ratings, have been assigned the RPN for each issue is calculated as mentioned below, RPN = Severity x Occurrence x Detection Rail maintenance issues can be broadly classified into: Inspection issues Issues related to rail wear, RCF and rail welding Rectification and replacement issues 6.1. Rail Inspection Issues The effectiveness of rail inspection depends on the efficiency and accuracy of the inspectingÃ equipment. It also depends on the skill and experience of inspectors. Error in inspection is an important issue and its reduction is a big challenge. This mainly depends on the technological limitations of the inspection equipment and the skill level of the rail inspectors. Figure 9: Rail inspection issues (Source: Kumar, 2007) 6.2. Issues related to Rail Wear, RCF and Rail Welding Figure 11 outlines the rail maintenance issues. The following sections briefly describe someÃ of these issues. Figure 10: Rail maintenance issues (Source: Kumar, 2007) 6.2.1. Rail Wear Issues Wear occurs due to interaction of rail and wheel. It includes mild and severe wear. Mild wear takes place slowly but severe wear is often much faster. Severe wear is predominant in curves and occurs dry conditions. Lubrication techniques are used to prevent such wears. Four commonly used techniques which are followed for rail-wheel lubrication are: Top of rail lubricators Wheel flange lubricators Wayside lubricators On board lubricators 6.2.2. Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) Issues In the late 1990s RCF accounted for about 60% of defects found by East Japan Railways, while in France (SNCF) and UK (Railtrack) the figures were about 25% and 15%,Ã respectively. RCF is a major future concern as business demands for higher speed; higher axle loads, higher traffic density and higher tractive forces increase (see Cannon et al, 2003). Rail grinding removes surface metal from the rail head. It is done mainly with intensions to control RCF defects and rail wear. Rail grinding became increasingly recognized for controlling RCF defects from 1980 onwards, prior to that it was mainly focused on corrugation removal. 6.2.3. Rail Welding Issues Small imperfection in welds can cause cracks to initiate. A defect free weld requires skilledÃ workforce, better weld material along with improved welding techniques and equipment. 6.3. Other Issues affecting Rail Wear, RCF and Rail Welding Risk and cost are analysed by rail infrastructure operators in maintenance decisions. It covers rail lubrication, rail grinding and rail weld. Other important issues are: Rail material Rail traffic density and axle load Track geometry In Conclusion, first a brief overview of rail structure is discussed. Then, diverse range of rail defects and degradation processes have been studied. From the literature analyses done, it is interpreted that there is a need for better ways to monitor and predict rail defects over a period based on operational conditions and maintenance tactics. A good knowledge of risk along with an idea of the methods used for risk analysis is also required. Hence, before improvement of any model or any empirical relationship associated with risk and failure, there should first be a familiarity with risk management tools and failure mode avoidance. This study focuses on some such tools. Also, the issues and challenges related to rail maintenance are discoursed. The aim is to reduce risks related to rail operation that leads to failure mode, by effective decisions associated to rail inspection, grinding, rectifications lubrications, and rail replacements. Some of the challenges in this area include development of cost effective maintenance decisions, reliability and availability of logistics support, which include availability of capable equipment, skilled personnel and availability of rail track. 8.1. References Allen, R., (1999) Finding best practice at the wheel/rail interface, International RailwayÃ Journal, Volume 6, pp. 48-50. European Commission Cordis (2017) AutoScan Rail inspection. Available from: http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/203338_en.html sighted: [February 2017] Cannon, D. F., Edel, K.O., Grassie, S. L. and Sawley, K. (2003) Rail defects: an overview,Ã Fatigue Fracture of Engineering Materials Structures, Volume 26, October 2003, pp.Ã 865-886. Ernest, T. S. and John, M. W. (1994) Track Geometry and Substructure Management,Ã Thomas Telfold. IHHA (2001) Guidelines to best practices for heavy haul railway operations: wheel and railÃ interface issues, International Heavy Haul Association, May 2001, Virginia, USA. KUMAR, S. (2007). Study of Rail Breaks: Associated Risks and Maintenance Strategies. Lulea Railway Research Center (JVTC)Ã MIL-STD-1629A, (1980) Military Standard Procedures for Performing a Failure Mode,Ã Effects and Criticality Analysis, Department of Defence, USA. Available from: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol4/Volume4/Toolspec_Rec/FMEA/MIL-STD-1629A.pdf sighted: [February 2017] Reddy, V. (2004) Modelling and Analysis of Rail Grinding Lubrication Strategies forÃ Controlling Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) and Rail Wear, Master Thesis, QueenslandÃ University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Reliasoft (2005) Examining risk priority numbers in FEMA, Reliability Edge, volume 4,Ã issue1. Available from: http://www.reliasoft.com/newsletter/2q2003/rpns.htm sighted: [February 2017] VILLEMEUR, Alain (1992-A, 1992-B). Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety Assessment, A: Vol. 1: Methods and Technique. B Vol.2: Assessment, Hardware, Software and Human Factors: John Wiley Sons. 8.2. Figures: Figure 1: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4b/Rail_profile.svg/800px-Rail_profile.svg.png?1487817217791 Figure 2: http://www.ndt.net/article/v07n06/thomas/fig3.jpg Figure 3: http://www.railwayexpertwitness.com/images/inspect9-300.jpg Figure 4: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229632336/figure/fig8/AS:[emailprotected]/Figure-1-Tache-ovale-or-kidney-rail-failure.png Figure 5: http://www.ndt.net/article/0698/schub/fig1.gif Figure 6: http://mikes.railhistory.railfan.net/imfile/09192.jpg Figure 7: http://railmeasurement.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/corrugation-track1.jpg Figure 8: VILLEMEUR, Alain (1992-A, 1992-B). Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety Assessment, A: Vol. 1: Methods and Technique. B Vol.2: Assessment, Hardware, Software and Human Factors: John Wiley Sons. Figure 9 and 10: KUMAR, S. (2007). Study of Rail Breaks: Associated Risks and Maintenance Strategies. Lulea Railway Research Center (JVTC)
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Four Castes of Orthodox Hinduism in Siddhartha The four castes of Orthodox Hinduism are Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. These four castes are the four stages of a man's life and four legitimate ends that a man may pursue. Author Hermann Hesse applied each of these four stages to the different phases of Siddhartha's path leading to peace. The novel Siddhartha relates the story of a young man traveling the path leading to peace. This young man is Siddhartha. Throughout the novel, Siddhartha changes his religion and "thoughts" about the ways of the world several times. Other characters, who influence Siddhartha, are his father, the prostitute Kamala, the rich merchant Kamaswami, best friend Govinda, and the river merchant Vasudeva. The first caste, Dharma, is adherence to the holy law, careful performance of rituals, and avoidance of taboos. Siddhartha experienced Dharma while living with his father, "he performed his holy ablutions, his holy offerings" (Hesse 3). Siddhartha regularly performed the religious rituals. While he seemed content, he was not. He soon left his father to pursue peace. The second caste, Artha, is the acquisition and preserving of wealth. Siddhartha experienced Artha by the means of the rich merchant Kamaswami. Kamaswami asked Siddhartha questions and he learned how clever he was. Therefore, Kamaswami hired Siddhartha to work for him; "the merchant entrusted him with writing important letters and contracts and got into the habit of conferring with him on all important matters" (Hesse 60). Siddhartha soon acquired great wealth. The third caste, Kama, refers to the enjoyment of the world. Siddhartha did this with the help of the prostitute Kamala, "the man who learned love from her was an expert in many pleasures" (Hesse 65). By Kamala, Siddhartha had learned how to enjoy worldly pleasures. He soon became and expert. The fourth caste is Moksha, which is the final release from the long series of incarnations.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Minimum Wage Legislation I am going to pose the question to you the students of Sir Sandford Fleming College, do you really want the minimum wage legislation left in affect? As college students you are not benefiting or gaining anything from minimum wage legislation. The minimum wage legislation requires all employees to be paid at least some fixed given dollar amount per hour. This sounds good, but it isn't all that it seems! Minimum wage is an example of government intervention. The government has put a minimum on the dollar amount that employers can pay their employees. Unfortunately when we implement solutions like the minimum wage, it is too late to actually fix the problem, so in most cases it has effects that we cannot foresee as it is a reaction instead of a prevention method. Minimum wage actually helps very few people. The only ones that benefit from minimum wage are those unskilled workers who are currently employed. Minimum wage restricts employment opportunities for the young, unexperienced, and those people with educational disadvantages. They will continue to find themselves handicapped in the job market as long as the minimum wage legislation remains in affect. In society today the demand for "unskilled" workers is low and the supply is high, therefore there is a surplus of unskilled workers in the job market. The effect of a surplus drives down an individuals reservation wage, as they are willing to do and take anything for work. Minimum wage only makes this fact more severe, as it increases the supply of workers. Minimum wage increases the cost of doing business, and unfortunately in today's economic conditions employers are not able to pass on the extra costs to the consumer. Minimum wage is not helping workers, it is hurting businesses, and to maintain any profit, and follow legislation companies have to cut labour costs somehow. Companies are being forced to take other alternatives because of higher labour costs for unskilled workers. Businesses are forced to: 1. Cut back current employees hours 2. Not hire any more employees &n... ... should be rated and fluctuated by these categories. Unfortunately minimum wage disregards all of this. Regardless of your education, skills, effort, you can still receive minimum wage. Minimum wage is a fixed dollar amount that is paid for many jobs that can not even be compared. Most of these jobs should have different pay rates, especially when the degree of skill is higher, but they don't. The government keeps increasing minimum wage, and making it tougher on businesses and at the same time discouraging unskilled workers from bettering themselves, and for what. The economy is not booming, and even with increasing minimum wage rates the economy is not seeing any extra money being put back into circulation. As well, the higher minimum wage rate keeps raising the level of unemployment. I feel that if we put the burden on the people of Ontario to be and do the best they can that we would not need minimum wage. The skills that we could produce would be widely demanded, so it would be to the benefit of many other unskilled minimum wage earners to support the abolishment of minimum wage legislation. You could receive better wages, and at the same time decrease the unemployment rate.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
In 1594 William Shakespeare wrote the play Romeo and Juliet, probably one of his most famous plays. This play was directed at an Elizabethan audience. Since then it has been shown at most theatres and cinemas for the middle-aged, educated people, a good example of this was Franco Zefferellis film in 1968. This version was a tradition Shakespeare format, it was filmed in an Italian city, Verona, in the 16th century with all the traditional clothing and language. However, Baz LuhrmannÃ¢â¬â¢s 1996 movie Ã¢â¬ËWilliam ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢ is a very accessible version of the play. His adaptation of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s classic story has been mixed with a modern day society with guns and drugs but still using the Elizabethan English. He updated almost everything in his film to attract the younger audience. He was trying to achieve a box-office success and in my opinion, and many others he did succeed in his attempt in many ways. In the opening sequence the audience would immediately know that the film was directed at the younger audience and had been updated to the 21st century, as it starts off with a blank television, this immediately shows the audience it is an updated version as the television is a 20th century invention. The camera zooms towards the TV and as it does a female news reader gives a vivid account of what is happening and what to expect in the plot, yet to unfold. She is a middle aged woman of Caribbean culture and has the ability to present her narrative in a clear diction. This also shows the audience the film has been updated because up until 25 years ago the black race were a 2nd class race across countries and in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time the black race would not have been in one of his plays. The soundtrack starts to play, and as it does it tells the audience that the film is action packed. It starts to play after the prologue has finished being read by the news reader and whilst it is playing the camera zooms into the TV it becomes distorted. There are then quick flashes of the scenes to come in the film, flashes of police helicopters, police, high rised buildings for the modern audience, they would immediately be familiar with the city and shows an older audience it not their type of film. The music becomes louder to give the film a dramatic effect, this makes the film intense. The audience is then shown skyscrapers that are topped by the trade names, Capulet and Montague, this reinforces the conflict between the two families. The audiences now know that this not fair Verona in Italy but fictionalised Verona Beach in America. The camera then pans out on the city. Pete Postlewaite, an English Shakespearian actor starts to read the prologue this shows that Baz Lurhanne chose his cast very carefully, he chose Pete Postlewaite to give the film more of a Ã¢â¬ËShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢ effect, as he does thereÃ¢â¬â¢s flashes of newspaper articles, intersperse of pictures and newspaper headlines of familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ arguments. He then introduces the families as they would in an American Ã¢â¬ËcopÃ¢â¬â¢ series, it shows a family member with their names below their picture, this shows the audience that the families arenÃ¢â¬â¢t noblemen from the 16th century but 21st century business/gangster/mafia men. Some characters had been updated as well as their names, for example, the Prince is now Captain Prince of Verona Beach police department. The cast were chosen to attract younger audiences; Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes play the Ã¢â¬Å"star-crossed loversÃ¢â¬ Romeo and Juliet, the rest of the players consist of an all star cast. Then the audience are introduced to the Montague boys as they are driving in a top muscle American car down a typical American highway. They have modern haircuts and tattoos; this also shows the audiences this is a more modernised film. The audience then see them go into a gas station; the audience is then introduced to the Capulets as they pull into the gas station also, the whole scene is turned into a spaghetti western spoof; this gives the film a comedy effect. As the Capulets get out from their car there are close ups of the Cuban heeled boots and when the fight starts between the MontagueÃ¢â¬â¢s and Capulets this is when the western effect starts. The close ups of one of the Capulets golden teeth, this is also typical Clint Eastwood effect. The slow motion dives and even the swinging sign at the gas station is also the spaghetti western effect. However the film has more updates through out the play such as the party that the Capulets have, the drug taking, car chases, alcohol and the famous balcony scene of Romeo and Juliet is moved to a swimming pool. These are all modernised updates and would not have been in a Shakespeare play. In my opinion Baz Luhrmann shows a good adaptation of William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s well-known love story. He successfully keeps the impact and the meaning of the plot while still portraying the traditional and original style. Despite Romeo and Juliet being a traditional play, Luhrmann makes his version stylised to attract younger audiences, making Shakespeare appeal to a wider range of people. It is clear that Baz LuhrmannÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions were to make the film as if Shakespeare was directing and focusing it on people in the 20th century. By using modern music and sound effects as well as incorporating young modern actors, Baz Luhrmann portrays this in the film very well. Luhrmann set out to achieve a successful block-buster and I personally think he did achieve this and in many other peoples opinion also. However many people may diagree because it is not traditonal enough for a Shakespeare play.
Monday, September 16, 2019
In cell biology and Pathophysiology, cellular adaptation refers to changes made by a cell in response to adverse environmental changes.  The adaptation may be physiologic(al) (normal) or pathologic(al) (abnormal). Five major types of adaptation include atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and metaplasia. Atrophy is a decrease in cell size. If enough cells in an organ atrophy the entire organ will decrease in size. Thymus atrophy during early human development (childhood) is an example of physiologic atrophy. Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common pathologic adaptation to skeletal muscle disuse (commonly called Ã¢â¬Å"disuse atrophy). Tissue and organs especially susceptible to atrophy include skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, secondary sex organs, and the brain. Hypertrophy is an increase in cell size. If enough cells of an organ hypertrophy so will the whole organ. The heart and kidneys have increased susceptibility to hypertrophy. Hypertrophy involves an increase in intracellular protein rather than cytosol (intracellular fluid). Hypertrophy may be caused by mechanical signals (e. g. , stretch) or trophic signals (e. g. , growth factors). An example of physiologic hypertrophy is in skeletal muscle with sustained weight bearing exercise. An example of pathologic hypertrophy is in cardiac muscle as a result of hypertension. Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells. It is the result of increased cell mitosis, or division. The two types of physiologic hyperplasia are compensatory and hormonal. Compensatory hyperplasia permits tissue and organ regeneration. It is common in epithelial cells of the epidermis and intestine, liver hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, and fibroblasts. It occurs to a lesser extent in bone, cartilage, and smooth muscle cells. Hormonal hyperplasia occurs mainly in organs that depend on estrogen. For example, the estrogen-dependent uterine cells undergo hyperplasia and hypertrophy following pregnancy. Pathologic hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in cell division. A common pathologic hyperplasia in women occurs in the endometrium and is called endometriosis. Dysplasia refers generally to abnormal changes in cellular shape, size, and/or organization. Dysplasia is not considered a true adaptation; rather, it is thought to be related to hyperplasia and is sometimes called Ã¢â¬Å"atypical hyperplasia. Ã¢â¬ Tissues prone to dysplasia include cervical and respiratory epithelia. Dysplasia often occurs in the vicinity of cancerous cells, and it may be involved in the development of breast cancer. Metaplasia occurs when a differentiated cell of a certain type is replaced by another cell type, which may be less differentiated. It is a reversible process thought to be caused by stem cell reprogramming. Stem cells are found in epithelia and embryonic mesenchyme of connective tissue. A prominent example of metaplasia involves the changes associated with the respiratory tract in response to inhalation of irritants, such as smog or smoke. The bronchial cells convert from mucus-secreting, ciliated, columnar epithelium to non-ciliated, squamous epithelium incapable of secreting mucus. These transformed cells may become dysplasic or cancerous if the stimulus (e. g. , cigarette smoking) is not removed.